Facts About Indonesia
Jakarta (+7 GMT), Population of around 10 Mio
Indonesian Rupiah (IDR), 1 Euro = IDR 11,657, 1 USD = IDR 9,065)
Geography of Indonesia :
Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. It consists of five major islands and about 30 smaller groups. There are total number of 17,508 islands of which about 6000 are inhabited. Straddling equator, the archipelago is on a crossroads between two oceans, the Pacific and the Indian Ocean, and bridges two continents, Asia and Australia. The territory of the Republic of Indonesia stretches from 6°08′ N latitude to 11°15′ S latitude, and from 94°45′ E to 141°05′ E longitude. Total Area of Indonesia is 1,919,440 sq km (Land Area: 1,826,440 sq km; Water Area: 93,000 sq km). The five main islands are: Sumatra (473,606 sq. km); the most fertile and densely populated islands, Java/Madura (132,107 sq. km); Kalimantan, which comprises two-thirds of the island of Borneo (539,460 sq km); Sulawesi (189,216 sq km); and Papua (421,981 sq km), which is part of the world’s second largest island, New Guinea. Indonesia’s other islands are smaller in size. The country is predominantly mountainous with some 400 volcanoes, of which 100 are active. The highest mountain is the perpetually snow-capped Mandala Top (15,300 feet) in the Wijaya mountain range of Papua. Many rivers flow throughout the country. They serve as useful transportation routes on certain islands, for example, the Musi, Batanghari, Indragiri and Kampar rivers in Sumatra; the Kapuas, Barito, Mahakam and Rejang Rivers in Kalimantan; and the Memberamo and Digul rivers in Papua.
Population of Indonesia was estimated at 239,870,940 in 2010 and 57% live on the island of Java and it is expected to grow to 254 million by 2020.
Ethnic Groups :
There are over a 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia where as the Javanese make up 41% of the total population. The next largest groups are the Sundanese, Malay and Madurese. Indonesian Chinese make up a little less than 1% of the total Indonesian population. Most of them speak various Chinese dialects such as Hokkien and Hakka.
Indonesia proclaimed its Independence from the Dutch on August 17, 1945. The constitution from 1945 embodies five principles of the state philosophy, called Pancasila, namely monotheism, humanitarianism, national unity, representative democracy by consensus, and social justice. Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. The power is concentrated in the central government. The President of Indonesia is both the head of state and the head of government where as the maximum term for any president is five years. The president is elected by direct popular vote.